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Seller Inventory Book Description Haus Publishing Limited, Jan Smuts was one of the key figures behind the creation of the League of Nations; Wilson was inspired by his ideas, including the mandates scheme. He pleaded for a magnanimous peace, warning that the treaty of Versailles would lead to another war. Series Editor s : Sharp, Alan. Series: Makers of the Modern World. Num Pages: pages, maps, black and white photographs. Dimension: x x Weight in Grams: Seller Inventory V Book Description Haus Publishing Limited.
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Publisher: Haus Publishing , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title Jan Christian Smuts was one of the key figures behind the creation of the League of Nations; Woodrow Wilson was inspired by his ideas on the League and borrowed heavily from them. Buy New Learn more about this copy. About AbeBooks. Let us now, like men, admit that that end has come for us, come in a more bitter shape than we ever thought. Representatives of the Governments met Lord Kitchener and at five minutes past eleven on May 31, , Acting President Burger signed the Peace Treaty, followed by the members of his Government, Acting President de Wet and the members of his Government.
For all Smuts' exploits as a general and a negotiator, nothing could mask the fact that the Afrikaners had been defeated and humiliated. Lord Milner had full control of all South African affairs, and established an Anglophone elite, known as Milner's Kindergarten. As an Afrikaner, Smuts was excluded. Defeated but not deterred, in January , he decided to join with the other former Transvaal generals to form a political party, Het Volk People's Party , to fight for the Afrikaner cause.
Louis Botha September 27, — August 27, was elected leader, and Smuts his deputy. When his term of office expired, Milner was replaced as High Commissioner by the more conciliatory Lord Selborne. When the Conservative government under Arthur Balfour collapsed, in December , the decision paid off. Smuts joined Botha in London, and sought to negotiate full self-government for the Transvaal within British South Africa.
Through , Smuts worked on the new constitution for the Transvaal, and, in December , elections were held for the Transvaal parliament.
Despite being shy and reserved, unlike the showman Botha, Smuts won a comfortable victory in the Wonderboom constituency, near Pretoria. His victory was one of many, with Het Volk winning in a landslide and Botha forming the government. To reward his loyalty and efforts, Smuts was given two key cabinet positions: Colonial Secretary and Education Secretary.
Smuts proved to be an effective leader, if unpopular. As Education Secretary, he had fights with the Dutch Reformed Church, of which he had once been a dedicated member, who demanded Calvinist teachings in schools. As Colonial Secretary, he was forced to confront Asian workers, the very people whose plight he had exploited in London, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. During the years of Transvaal self-government, no-one could avoid the predominant political debate of the day: South African unification.
Ever since the British victory in the war, it was an inevitability, but it remained up to the South Africans to decide what sort of country would be formed, and how it would be formed. Smuts favored a unitary state, with power centralized in Pretoria, with English as the only official language, and with a more inclusive electorate. To impress upon his compatriots his vision, he called a constitutional convention in Durban, in October There, Smuts was up against a hard-talking Orange delegation, who refused every one of Smuts' demands.
Smuts had successfully predicted this opposition, and their objectives, and tailored his own ambitions appropriately. He allowed compromise on the location of the capital, on the official language, and on suffrage, but he refused to budge on the fundamental structure of government. As the convention drew into autumn, the Orange leaders began to see a final compromise as necessary to secure the concessions that Smuts had already made.
Smuts' dream had been realized. The Union of South Africa was born, and the Afrikaners held the key to political power, for they formed the largest part of the electorate. Although Botha was appointed Prime Minister of the new country, Smuts was given three key ministries: those for the Interior, the Mines, and Defense. Undeniably, Smuts was the second most powerful man in South Africa. The harmony and cooperation soon ended.
Smuts was criticized for his over-arching powers, and was reshuffled, losing his positions in charge of Defense and the Mines, but gaining control of the Treasury. This was still too much for Smuts' opponents, who decried his possession of both Defense and Finance: two departments that were usually at loggerheads. The two narrowly survived a conference vote, and the troublesome triumvirate stormed out, leaving the party for good. With the schism in internal party politics came a new threat to the mines that brought South Africa its wealth. A small-scale miners' dispute flared into a full-blown strike , and rioting broke out in Johannesburg after Smuts intervened heavy-handedly.
After police shot dead 21 strikers, Smuts and Botha headed unaccompanied to Johannesburg to personally resolve the situation. They did, facing down threats to their own lives, and successfully negotiating a cease-fire. The cease-fire did not hold, and, in , a railway strike turned into a general strike, and threats of a revolution caused Smuts to declare martial law. Smuts acted ruthlessly, deporting union leaders without trial and using Parliament to retrospectively absolve him or the government of any blame. This was too much for the Old Boers, who set up their own party, the National Party, to fight the all-powerful Botha-Smuts partnership.
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The Old Boers urged Smuts' opponents to arm themselves, and civil war seemed inevitable before the end of In October , when the Government was faced with open rebellion by Lt Col Manie Maritz and others in the Maritz Rebellion, Government forces under the command of Botha and Smuts were able to put down the rebellion without it ever seriously threatening to ignite into a Third Boer War.
His first task was to suppress the Maritz Rebellion, which was accomplished by November of While the East African Campaign went fairly well, the German forces were not destroyed. In , Smuts helped to create a Royal Air Force, independent of the army. Smuts and Botha were key negotiators at the Paris Peace Conference. Both were in favor of reconciliation with Germany and limited reparations. Smuts advocated a powerful League of Nations , which failed to materialize. At the same time, Australia was given a similar mandate over German New Guinea, which it held until Smuts returned to South African politics after the conference.
When Botha died in , Smuts was elected Prime Minister, serving until a shocking defeat in at the hands of the National Party. Smuts attempted to sell the concept of Ireland receiving Dominion status similar to that of Australia and South Africa. While in academia, Smuts pioneered the concept of holism , defined as "the tendency in nature to form wholes that are greater than the sum of the parts through creative evolution" in his book, Holism and Evolution. One biographer ties together his far-reaching political vision with his technical philosophy:.
It had very much in common with his philosophy of life as subsequently developed and embodied in his Holism and Evolution.
Jan Smuts | South African statesman | dudavonunuha.tk
Small units must needs develop into bigger wholes, and they in their turn again must grow into larger and ever-larger structures without cessation. Advancement lay along that path. Thus the unification of the four provinces in the Union of South Africa, the idea of the British Commonwealth of Nations, and, finally, the great whole resulting from the combination of the peoples of the earth in a great league of nations were but a logical progression consistent with his philosophical tenets.
After Albert Einstein studied Holism and Evolution soon upon its publication, he wrote that two mental constructs will direct human thinking in the next millennium, his own mental construct of relativity and Smuts' of holism.
In the work of Smuts he saw a clear blueprint of much of his own life, work and personality. Einstein also said of Smuts that he was "one of only eleven men in the world" who conceptually understood his Theory of Relativity . As a botanist , Smuts collected plants extensively over southern Africa. He went on several botanical expeditions in the s and s with John Hutchinson, former Botanist in charge of the African section of the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens and taxonomist of note.
Although at times hailed as a liberal, Smuts is often depicted as a white supremacist who played an important role in establishing and supporting a racially segregated society in South Africa. While he thought it was the duty of whites to deal justly with Africans and raise them up in civilization , they should not be given political power. Giving the right to vote to the black African majority he feared would imply the ultimate destruction of Western civilization in South Africa. Smuts was for most of his political life a vocal supporter of segregation of the races, and in he justified the erection of separate institutions for blacks and whites in tones reminiscent of the later practice of apartheid :.
The old practice mixed up black with white in the same institutions, and nothing else was possible after the native institutions and traditions had been carelessly or deliberately destroyed. But in the new plan there will be what is called in South Africa "segregation"—separate institutions for the two elements of the population living in their own separate areas.
Separate institutions involve territorial segregation of the white and black. If they live mixed together it is not practicable to sort them out under separate institutions of their own. Institutional segregation carries with it territorial segregation. In general, Smuts' view of Africans was patronizing, he saw them as immature human beings who needed the guidance of whites, an attitude that reflected the common perceptions of the white minority population of South Africa in his lifetime.
Of Africans he stated that:. These children of nature have not the inner toughness and persistence of the European, not those social and moral incentives to progress which have built up European civilization in a comparatively short period. Smuts is often accused of being a politician who extolled the virtues of humanitarianism and liberalism abroad while failing to practice what he preached at home in South Africa. This was most clearly illustrated when India , in , made a formal complaint in the United Nations concerning the legalized racial discrimination against Indians in South Africa.
Appearing personally before the United Nations General Assembly, Smuts defended the racial policies of his government by fervently pleading that India's complaint was a matter of domestic jurisdiction. However, the General Assembly condemned South Africa for its racial policies by the requisite two-thirds majority and called upon the Smuts government to bring its treatment of the South African Indians in conformity with the basic principles of the United Nations Charter.
The international criticism of racial discrimination in South Africa led Smuts to modify his rhetoric around segregation. In a bid to make South African racial policies sound more acceptable to Britain he declared already in that "segregation had failed to solve the Native problem of Africa and that the concept of trusteeship offered the only prospect of happy relations between European and African".
In he went further away from his previous views on segregation when supporting the recommendations of the Fagan Commission that Africans should be recognized as permanent residents of White South Africa and not only temporary workers that really belonged in the reserves. This was in direct opposition to the policies of the National Party that wished to extend segregation and formalize it into apartheid. There is however no evidence that Smuts ever supported the idea of equal political rights for blacks and whites.
The Fagan Commission did not advocate the establishment of a non-racial democracy in South Africa, but rather wanted to liberalize influx controls of Africans into urban areas in order to facilitate the supply of African labor to the South African industry. It also envisaged a relaxation of the pass laws that had restricted the movement of Africans in general. The coming victory : a speech made by General Smuts on October 4, by Jan Christiaan Smuts Book 48 editions published between and in 8 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Freedom by Jan Christiaan Smuts Book 9 editions published between and in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
Amtliche Berichte von Burengeneralen an Prasident Kruger 2 editions published in in German and Dutch and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. General Smuts's message to South Wales : speech delivered at Tonypandy, Rhondda, on October 29, by Jan Christiaan Smuts Book 12 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Greater South Africa, plans for a better world by Jan Christiaan Smuts Book 8 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
Arthur Currie. The realm of a rain-queen, a study of the pattern of Lovedu society by Eileen Jensen Krige Book 5 editions published between and in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
Jan Christian Smuts
Jan Smuts remembered: a centennial tribute by Zelda Friedlander Book 3 editions published in in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects. Jan Christiaan Smuts.