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Matheson pp. Who Knows? Foster pp. Bibliography pp. Contributors pp.
Index pp. Project MUSE Mission Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Contact Contact Us Help. Although distinct from the discipline of cultural anthropology and the interdisciplinary field of ethnic studies , cultural studies draws upon and has contributed to each of these fields.
Marian Bredin | Brock University - dudavonunuha.tk
Cultural studies was initially developed by British academics in the late s, s, and s, and has been subsequently taken up and transformed by scholars from many different disciplines around the world. Cultural studies is avowedly and even radically interdisciplinary and can sometimes be seen as antidisciplinary. A key concern for cultural studies practitioners is the examination of the forces within and through which socially organized people conduct and participate in the construction of their everyday lives.
Cultural studies seeks to understand how meaning is generated, disseminated, contested, bound up with systems of power and control, and produced from the social, political and economic spheres within a particular social formation or conjuncture. Important theories of cultural hegemony and agency have both influenced and been developed by the cultural studies movement, as have many recent major communication theories and agendas, such as those that attempt to explain and analyze the cultural forces related and processes of globalization.
During the rise of neo-liberalism in Britain and the US, cultural studies both became a global movement, and attracted the attention of many conservative opponents both within and beyond universities for a variety of reasons.
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Some left-wing critics associated particularly with Marxist forms of political economy also attacked cultural studies for allegedly overstating the importance of cultural phenomena. While cultural studies continues to have its detractors, the field has become a kind of a worldwide movement that is to this day associated with a raft of scholarly associations and programs, annual international conferences, publications and students and practitioners from Taiwan to Amsterdam and from Bangalore to Santa Cruz.
In his book, Introducing Cultural Studies , Ziauddin Sardar lists the following five main characteristics of cultural studies: . As Dennis Dworkin writes,  "a critical moment" in the beginning of cultural studies as a field was when Richard Hoggart used the term in in founding the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies CCCS at the University of Birmingham in the UK, which was to become home for the development of the intellectual orientation that has become known internationally as the "Birmingham School" of cultural studies.
Then, in , the University of Birmingham's senior administration abruptly announced the disestablishment of CSS, provoking a substantial international outcry. There are numerous published accounts of the history of cultural studies. Many cultural studies scholars employed Marxist methods of analysis, exploring the relationships between cultural forms the superstructure and that of the political economy the base.
By the s, the work of Louis Althusser radically rethought the Marxist account of "base" and "superstructure" in ways that had a significant influence on the "Birmingham School. Also during the 70s, the politically formidable British working classes were in decline. Britain's manufacturing industries were fading and union rolls were shrinking.
Yet millions of working class Britons backed the rise of Margaret Thatcher. For Stuart Hall and his colleagues, this shift in loyalty from the Labour Party to the Conservative Party had to be explained in terms of cultural politics, which they had been tracking even before Thatcher's victory. By the late s, scholars associated with The Birmingham School had firmly placed questions of gender and race on the cultural studies agenda, where they have remained ever since.
Also by the late s, cultural studies had begun to attract a great deal of international attention. It spread globally throughout the s and 90s. As it did so, it both encountered new conditions of knowledge production, and engaged with other major international intellectual currents such as poststructuralism, postmodernism and postcolonialism.
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In the US, prior to the emergence of British Cultural Studies, several versions of cultural analysis had emerged largely from pragmatic and liberal-pluralist philosophical traditions. A thriving cultural studies scene has existed in Australia since the late s, when several key CS practitioners emigrated there from the UK, taking British Cultural Studies with them, after Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister of the UK in A school of cultural studies known as "cultural policy studies" is one of the distinctive Australian contributions to the field, though it is not the only one.
Australia also gave birth to the world's first professional cultural studies association now known as the Cultural Studies Association of Australasia in In Canada , cultural studies has sometimes focused on issues of technology and society , continuing the emphasis in the work of Marshall McLuhan , Harold Innis , and others.
In Africa, human rights and Third World issues are among the central topics treated. Even though cultural studies developed much more rapidly in the UK than in continental Europe, there is a significant cultural studies presence in countries such as France, Spain and Portugal. The field is relatively undeveloped in Germany, probably due to the continued influence of the Frankfurt School , which is now often said to be in its third generation, which includes notable figures such as Axel Honneth.
In Germany, the term cultural studies specifically refers to the field in the Anglo-sphere especially British Cultural Studies  to differentiate it from the German Kulturwissenschaft which developed along different lines and is characterized by its distance from political science. However, Kulturwissenschaft and cultural studies are often used interchangeably, particularly by lay persons.
Throughout Asia, cultural studies has boomed and thrived since at least the beginning of the s. As noted above, Marxism has been an important influence upon cultural studies. Those associated with CCCS initially engaged deeply with the structuralism of Louis Althusser , and later in the s turned decisively toward Antonio Gramsci. Cultural studies has also embraced the examination of race, gender, and other aspects of identity, as is illustrated, for example, by a number of key books published collectively under the name of CCCS in the late s and early 80s, including Women Take Issue: Aspects of Women's Subordination , and The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain To understand the changing political circumstances of class, politics and culture in the United Kingdom, scholars at The Birmingham School turned to the work of Antonio Gramsci , an Italian thinker, writer and communist party leader of the s, 20s and '30s.
Gramsci had been concerned with similar issues: why would Italian laborers and peasants vote for fascists? What strategic approach is necessary to mobilize popular support in more progressive directions?
Gramsci modified classical Marxism , and argued that culture must be understood as a key site of political and social struggle. In his view, capitalists used not only brute force police, prisons, repression, military to maintain control, but also penetrated the everyday culture of working people in a variety of ways in their efforts to win popular "consent. Hegemony was always, for Gramsci, an interminable, unstable and contested process.
In the work of Hall, Hebdige and McRobbie, popular culture came to the fore What Gramsci gave to this was the importance of consent and culture. If the fundamental Marxists saw power in terms of class-versus-class, then Gramsci gave to us a question of class alliance. The rise of cultural studies itself was based on the decline of the prominence of fundamental class-versus-class politics.
The theory of hegemony was of central importance to the development of British cultural studies [particularly The Birmingham School. It facilitated analysis of the ways subordinate groups actively resist and respond to political and economic domination. The subordinate groups needed not to be seen merely as the passive dupes of the dominant class and its ideology. The development of hegemony theory in cultural studies was in some ways consonant with work in other fields exploring agency , a theoretical concept that insists on the active, critical capacities of subordinated peoples e.
Some analysts have however been critical of some work in cultural studies that they feel overstates the significance of or even romanticizes some forms of popular cultural agency. Cultural studies often concerns itself with agency at the level of the practices of everyday life, and approaches such research from a standpoint of radical contextualism. Judith Butler, an American feminist theorist whose work is often associated with cultural studies, wrote that. It has marked a shift from a form of Althusserian theory that takes structural totalities as theoretical objects to one in which the insights into the contingent possibility of structure inaugurate a renewed conception of hegemony as bound up with the contingent sites and strategies of the rearticulation of power.
Thanks largely to Maus and later works like Persepolis and Fun Home , comics are now commonly taught in a variety of university courses, primarily but not exclusively within literature departments, and comics studies is emerging as an academic field. In the Anglo-American academy, scholarly interest in comics came primarily from the field of literary studies.
However, due to developments such as the rise of big-budget superhero films in the s, comics have emerged as a central element of the contemporary media ecology, and an increasing amount of work now focuses on the relationship between comics and other media, including but not limited to film. This bibliography surveys the wide range of work that specifically examines comics in the context of film and media studies.
It focuses primarily on comic books and strips, rather than related art forms such as caricature and political cartooning. While this bibliography focuses primarily on the Anglo-American comics tradition, it will also seek to incorporate discussion of other national comics cultures.
It begins with lists of introductory works and general histories and theories of comics. Subsequently, rather than focusing on specific genres e. These focuses include form and narratology, technology and materiality, audience, cultural politics, nationality, industry, race and ethnicity, and gender and sexuality. These divisions between different axes or focuses of comics studies are not hard-and-fast; many works in this bibliography consider several of these issues at once, and the decision to place a particular work in one category rather than another is somewhat arbitrary.
Finally, this bibliography concludes by examining texts that are not merely about comics, but are comics—that is, texts that use the comics medium to do media studies. Comics studies is an emerging field, and the popularity of works like Maus, Persepolis , and Fun Home has attracted many scholars to the field who are not comics experts and are often perplexed as to how to study or teach comics. The following works offer a basic introduction to the field for scholars and teachers who are new to comics.
The complete novice is advised to start with Newgarden and Karasik Abel and Madden ; Duncan, et al. Heer and Worcester and Smith and Duncan are useful collections of essays on various aspects of comics, while Baetens and Frey is a more focused introduction to one of the most widely taught types of comics. Tabachnick is a useful starting point for teachers interested in using comics.
For film and media scholars interested in the study of comics, Beaty includes useful discussions of how the two fields can inform each other. Abel, Jessica, and Matt Madden. New York: First Second, This textbook, written by a husband-and-wife team of successful graphic novelists, is intended primarily for aspiring comic book artists. However, it is also relevant to scholars because it offers a clear and accessible introduction to the semiotics of comics. Baetens, Jan, and Hugo Frey. The Graphic Novel: An Introduction.
New York: Cambridge University Press, DOI: